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# Boutique Boutique Casual Skirt Skirt Skirt Boutique Boutique Boutique Skirt Casual Casual Casual aZwqrxa

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## 19.1 Introduction to Integration

Maxima has several routines for handling integration. The `integrate`CALVIN CALVIN KLEIN KLEIN Promotion JEANS Promotion CALVIN JEANS KLEIN Promotion qOt4xnAwXf function makes use of most of them. There is also the `antid` package, which handles an unspecified function (and its derivatives, of course). For numerical uses, there is a set of adaptive integrators from QUADPACK, named `quad_qag`, `quad_qags`, etc., which are described under the heading `QUADPACK`. Hypergeometric functions are being worked on, see `specint` for details. Generally speaking, Maxima only handles integrals which are integrable in terms of the "elementary functions" (rational functions, trigonometrics, logs, exponentials, radicals, etc.) and a few extensions (error function, dilogarithm). It does not handle integrals in terms of unknown functions such as `g(x)` and `h(x)`.

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## 19.2 Functions and Variables for Integration

Function: changevar (expr, f(x,y), y, x)

Makes the change of variable given by `f(x,y) = 0` in all integrals occurring in expr with integration with respect to x. The new variable is y.

The change of variable can also be written `f(x) = g(y)`.

```(%i1) assume(a > 0)\$
(%i2) 'integrate (%e**sqrt(a*y), y, 0, 4);
4
/
[    sqrt(a) sqrt(y)
(%o2)                I  %e                dy
]
/
0
(%i3) changevar (%, y-z^2/a, z, y);
0
/
[                abs(z)
2 I            z %e       dz
]
/
- 2 sqrt(a)
(%o3)            - ----------------------------
a
```

An expression containing a noun form, such as the instances of `'integrate` above, may be evaluated by `ev` with the `nouns` flag. For example, the expression returned by `changevar` above may be evaluated by `ev (%o3, nouns)`.

`changevar` may also be used to changes in the indices of a sum or product. However, it must be realized that when a change is made in a sum or product, this change must be a shift, i.e., `Casual Boutique Boutique Boutique Skirt Casual Skirt Casual Skirt Boutique Skirt Boutique Casual i = j+ ...`, not a higher degree function. E.g.,

```(%i4) sum (a[i]*x^(i-2), i, 0, inf);
inf
====
\         i - 2
(%o4)                     >    a  x
/      i
====
i = 0
(%i5) changevar (%, i-2-n, n, i);
inf
====
\               n
(%o5)                    >      a      x
/        n + 2
====
n = - 2
```

Function: dblint (f, r, s, a, b)

A double-integral routine which was written in top-level Maxima and then translated and compiled to machine code. Use `load ("dblint")` to access this package. It uses the Simpson's rule method in both the x and y directions to calculate

```/b /s(x)
|  |
|  |    f(x,y) dy dx
|  |
/a /r(x)
```

The function f must be a translated or compiled function of two variables, and rPromotion Nicole Nicole Miller Promotion Promotion Miller Miller Promotion Nicole vPqrv and s must each be a translated or compiled function of one variable, while a and b must be floating point numbers. The routine has two global variables which determine the number of divisions of the x and y intervals: `dblint_x` and `dblint_y`, both of which are initially 10, and can be changed independently to other integer values (there are `2*dblint_x+1` points computed in the x direction, and `2*dblint_y+1` in the y direction). The routine subdivides the X axis and then for each value of X it first computes `r(x)` and `s(x)`; then the Y axis between `r(x)` and `s(x)` is subdivided and the integral along the Y axis is performed using Simpson's rule; then the integral along the X axis is done using Simpson's rule with the function values being the Y-integrals. This procedure may be numerically unstable for a great variety of reasons, but is reasonably fast: avoid using it on highly oscillatory functions and functions with singularities (poles or branch points in the region). The Y integrals depend on how far apart `r(x)` and `s(x)` are, so if the distance `s(x) - r(x)` varies rapidly with X, there may be substantial errors arising from truncation with different step-sizes in the various Y integrals. One can increase `dblint_x` and `dblint_y` in an effort to improve the coverage of the region, at the expense of computation time. The function values are not saved, so if the function is very time-consuming, you will have to wait for re-computation if you change anything (sorry). It is required that the functions f, r, and s be either translated or compiled prior to calling `dblint`. This will result in orders of magnitude speed improvement over interpreted code in many cases!

`demo (dblint)` executes a demonstration of `dblint` applied to an example problem.

Function: defint (expr, x, a, b)

Attempts to compute a definite integral. `defint` is called by `integrate` when limits of integration are specified, i.e., when `integrate` is called as `integrate (expr, x, a, b)`. Thus from the user's point of view, it is sufficient to call `integrate`.

`defint` returns a symbolic expression, either the computed integral or the noun form of the integral. See `quad_qag` and related functions for numerical approximation of definite integrals.

Option variable: erfflag

Default value: `Skirt Casual Boutique Casual Boutique Skirt Casual Boutique Boutique Casual Boutique Skirt Skirt true`

When `erfflag` is `false`, prevents `risch` from introducing the `erf` function in the answer if there were none in the integrand to begin with.

Function: ilt (expr, s, t) Dress Selling Old Navy Casual Old Selling OqX6Z

Computes the inverse Laplace transform of expr with respect to s and parameter t. expr must be a ratio of polynomials whose denominator has only linear and quadratic factors. By using the functions `laplace` and `ilt` together with the `solve` or `linsolve` functions the user can solve a single differential or convolution integral equation or a set of them.

```(%i1) 'integrate (sinh(a*x)*f(t-x), x, 0, t) + b*f(t) = t**2;
t
/
[                                    2
(%o1)        I  f(t - x) sinh(a x) dx + b f(t) = t
]
/
0
(%i2) laplace (%, t, s);
a laplace(f(t), t, s)   2
(%o2)  b laplace(f(t), t, s) + --------------------- = --
2    2           3
s  - a           s
(%i3) linsolve ([%], ['laplace(f(t), t, s)]);
2      2
2 s  - 2 a
(%o3)     [laplace(f(t), t, s) = --------------------]
5         2     3
b s  + (a - a  b) s
(%i4) ilt (rhs (first (%)), s, t);
Is  a b (a b - 1)  positive, negative, or zero?

pos;
sqrt(a b (a b - 1)) t
2 cosh(---------------------)       2
b               a t
(%o4) - ----------------------------- + -------
3  2      2               a b - 1
a  b  - 2 a  b + a

2
+ ------------------
3  2      2
a  b  - 2 a  b + a
```

Categories:  Laplace transform

Option variable: intanalysis

Default value: `true`

When `true`, definite integration tries to find poles in the integrand in the interval of integration. If there are, then the integral is evaluated appropriately as a principal value integral. If intanalysis is `false`, this check is not performed and integration is done assuming there are no poles.

See also `ldefint`.

Examples:

Maxima can solve the following integrals, when `intanalysis` is set to `false`:

```(%i1) integrate(1/(sqrt(x)+1),x,0,1);
1
/
[       1
(%o1)                          I  ----------- dx
]  sqrt(x) + 1
/
0

(%i2) integrate(1/(sqrt(x)+1),x,0,1),intanalysis:false;
(%o2)                            2 - 2 log(2)

(%i3) integrate(cos(a)/sqrt((tan(a))^2 +1),a,-%pi/2,%pi/2);
The number 1 isn't in the domain of atanh
-- an error. To debug this try: debugmode(true);

(%i4) intanalysis:false\$
(%i5) integrate(cos(a)/sqrt((tan(a))^2+1),a,-%pi/2,%pi/2);
%pi
(%o5)                                 ---
2
```

Boutique Skirt Casual Boutique Skirt Casual Casual Boutique Boutique Casual Boutique Skirt Skirt Function: integrate
integrate (expr, x)
integrate (expr, x, a, b)

Attempts to symbolically compute the integral of expr with respect to x. `integrate (expr, x)` is an indefinite integral, while `integrate (expr, x, a, b)` is a definite integral, with limits of integration a and b. The limits should not contain x, although `integrate` does not enforce this restriction. a need not be less than b. If b is equal to a, `integrate` returns zero.

See `quad_qag` and related functions for numerical approximation of definite integrals. See `residue` for computation of residues (complex integration). See `antid` for an alternative means of computing indefinite integrals.

The integral (an expression free of `integrate`) is returned if `integrate` succeeds. Otherwise the return value is the noun form of the integral (the quoted operator `'integrate`) or an expression containing one or more noun forms. The noun form of `integrate` is displayed with an integral sign.

In some circumstances it is useful to construct a noun form by hand, by quoting `integrate` with a single quote, e.g., `'integrate (expr, x)`. For example, the integral may depend on some parameters which are not yet computed. The noun may be applied to its arguments by `ev (i, nouns)` where i is the noun form of interest.

`integrate` handles definite integrals separately from indefinite, and employs a range of heuristics to handle each case. Special cases of definite integrals include limits of integration equal to zero or infinity (`inf` or `minf`), trigonometric functions with limits of integration equal to zero and `%pi` or `2 %pi`, rational functions, integrals related to the definitions of the `beta` and `psi` functions, and some logarithmic and trigonometric integrals. Processing rational functions may include computation of residues. If an applicable special case is not found, an attempt will be made to compute the indefinite integral and evaluate it at the limits of integration. This may include taking a limit as a limit of integration goes to infinity or negative infinity; see also `ldefint`.

Special cases of indefinite integrals include trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and rational functions. `integrate` may also make use of a short table of elementary integrals.

`integrate` may carry out a change of variable if the integrand has the form `f(g(x)) * diff(g(x), x)`. `integrate` attempts to find a subexpression `g(x)` such that the derivative of `g(x)` divides the integrand. This search may make use of derivatives defined by the `gradef` function. See also `changevar` and `antid`.

If none of the preceding heuristics find the indefinite integral, the Risch algorithm is executed. The flag `risch` may be set as an `evflag`, in a call to `ev` or on the command line, e.g., `ev (integrate (expr, x), risch)` or `integrate (expr, x), risch`. If `risch` is present, `integrate` calls the `risch` function without attempting heuristics first. See also `risch`.

`integrate` works only with functional relations represented explicitly with the `f(x)` notation. `integrate` does not respect implicit dependencies established by the `depends` function.

`integrate` may need to know some property of a parameter in the integrand. `integrate` will first consult the `assume` database, and, if the variable of interest is not there, `integrate` will ask the user. Depending on the question, suitable responses are `yes;` or `no;`, or `pos;`, `zero;`, or `neg;`.

`integrate` is not, by default, declared to be linear. See `declare` and `linear`.

`Casual Casual Boutique Skirt Boutique Skirt Casual Skirt Boutique Casual Boutique Boutique Skirt integrate` attempts integration by parts only in a few special cases.

Examples:

• Elementary indefinite and definite integrals.
```(%i1) integrate (sin(x)^3, x);
3
cos (x)
(%o1)                   ------- - cos(x)
3
(%i2) integrate (x/ sqrt (b^2 - x^2), x);
2    2
(%o2)                    - sqrt(b  - x )
(%i3) integrate (cos(x)^2 * exp(x), x, 0, %pi);
%pi
3 %e      3
(%o3)                      ------- - -
5      5
(%i4) integrate (x^2 * exp(-x^2), x, minf, inf);
sqrt(%pi)
(%o4)                       ---------
2
```
• Use of `assume` and interactive query.
```(%i1) assume (a > 1)\$
(%i2) integrate (x**a/(x+1)**(5/2), x, 0, inf);
2 a + 2
Is  -------  an integer?
5

no;
Is  2 a - 3  positive, negative, or zero?

neg;
3
(%o2)                  beta(a + 1, - - a)
2
```
• Change of variable. There are two changes of variable in this example: one using a derivative established by `gradef`, and one using the derivation `diff(r(x))` of an unspecified function `r(x)`.
```(%i3) gradef (q(x), sin(x**2));
(%o3)                         q(x)
(%i4) diff (log (q (r (x))), x);
d               2
(-- (r(x))) sin(r (x))
dx
(%o4)                ----------------------
q(r(x))
(%i5) integrate (%, x);
(%o5)                     log(q(r(x)))
```
• Return value contains the `'integrate` noun form. In this example, Maxima can extract one factor of the denominator of a rational function, but cannot factor the remainder or otherwise find its integral. `grind` shows the noun form `'integrate` in the result. See also `integrate_use_rootsof` for more on integrals of rational functions.
```(%i1) expand ((x-4) * (x^3+2*x+1));
4      3      2
(%o1)              x  - 4 x  + 2 x  - 7 x - 4
(%i2) integrate (1/%, x);
/  2
[ x  + 4 x + 18
I ------------- dx
]  3
log(x - 4)   / x  + 2 x + 1
(%o2)            ---------- - ------------------
73               73
(%i3) grind (%);
log(x-4)/73-('integrate((x^2+4*x+18)/(x^3+2*x+1),x))/73\$
```
• Defining a function in terms of an integral. The body of a function is not evaluated when the function is defined. Thus the body of `f_1` in this example contains the noun form of `integrate`. The quote-quote operator `Skirt Boutique Casual Skirt Boutique Boutique Casual Boutique Casual Skirt Skirt Casual Boutique ''` causes the integral to be evaluated, and the result becomes the body of `f_2`.
```(%i1) f_1 (a) := integrate (x^3, x, 1, a);
3
(%o1)           f_1(a) := integrate(x , x, 1, a)
(%i2) ev (f_1 (7), nouns);
(%o2)                          600
(%i3) /* Note parentheses around integrate(...) here */
f_2 (a) := ''(integrate (x^3, x, 1, a));
4
a    1
(%o3)                   f_2(a) := -- - -
4    4
(%i4) f_2 (7);
(%o4)                          600
```

System variable: integration_constant

Default value: `%c`

When a constant of integration is introduced by indefinite integration of an equation, the name of the constant is constructed by concatenating `integration_constant` and `integration_constant_counter`.

`integration_constant` may be assigned any symbol.

Examples:

```(%i1) integrate (x^2 = 1, x);
3
x
(%o1)                     -- = x + %c1
3
(%i2) integration_constant : 'k;
(%o2)                           k
(%i3) integrate (x^2 = 1, x);
3
x
(%o3)                      -- = x + k2
3
```

System variable: integration_constant_counter

Default value: 0

When a constant of integration is introduced by indefinite integration of an equation, the name of the constant is constructed by concatenating `integration_constant` and `integration_constant_counter`.

`integration_constant_counter` is incremented before constructing the next integration constant.

Examples:

```(%i1) integrate (x^2 = 1, x);
3
x
(%o1)                     -- = x + %c1
3
(%i2) integrate (x^2 = 1, x);
3
x
(%o2)                     -- = x + %c2
3
(%i3) integrate (x^2 = 1, x);
3
x
(%o3)                     -- = x + %c3
3
(%i4) reset (integration_constant_counter);
(%o4)            [integration_constant_counter]
(%i5) integrate (x^2 = 1, x);
3
x
(%o5)                     -- = x + %c1
3
```

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Option variable: integrate_use_rootsof

Default value: `false`

When `integrate_use_rootsof` is `true` and the denominator of a rational function cannot be factored, `integrate` returns the integral in a form which is a sum over the roots (not yet known) of the denominator.

For example, with `integrate_use_rootsof` set to `false`, `integrate` returns an unsolved integral of a rational function in noun form:

```(%i1) integrate_use_rootsof: false\$
(%i2) integrate (1/(1+x+x^5), x);
/  2
[ x  - 4 x + 5
I ------------ dx                            2 x + 1
]  3    2                2            5 atan(-------)
/ x  - x  + 1       log(x  + x + 1)          sqrt(3)
(%o2)   ----------------- - --------------- + ---------------
7                 14             7 sqrt(3)
```

Now we set the flag to be true and the unsolved part of the integral will be expressed as a summation over the roots of the denominator of the rational function:

```(%i3) integrate_use_rootsof: true\$
(%i4) integrate (1/(1+x+x^5), x);
====        2
\       (%r4  - 4 %r4 + 5) log(x - %r4)
>      -------------------------------
/                    2
====            3 %r4  - 2 %r4
3      2
%r4 in rootsof(%r4  - %r4  + 1, %r4)
(%o4) ----------------------------------------------------------
7

2 x + 1
2            5 atan(-------)
log(x  + x + 1)          sqrt(3)
- --------------- + ---------------
14             7 sqrt(3)
```

Alternatively the user may compute the roots of the denominator separately, and then express the integrand in terms of these roots, e.g., `1/((x - a)*(x - b)*(x - c))` or `1/((x^2 - (a+b)*x + a*b)*(x - c))` if the denominator is a cubic polynomial. Sometimes this will help Maxima obtain a more useful result.

Function: ldefint (expr, x, a, b)

Attempts to compute the definite integral of expr by using `limit` to evaluate the indefinite integral of expr with respect to x at the upper limit b and at the lower limit a. If it fails to compute the definite integral, `ldefint` returns an expression containing limits as noun forms.

`ldefint` is not called from `integrate`, so executing `ldefint (expr, x, a, b)` may yield a different result than `integrate (expr, x, a, b)`. `ldefint` always uses the same method to evaluate the definite integral, while `integrate` may employ various heuristics and may recognize some special cases.

The calculation makes use of the global variable `potentialzeroloc` which must be `nonlist` or of the form

```[indeterminatej=expressionj, indeterminatek=expressionk, ...]
```

the former being equivalent to the nonlist expression for all right-hand sides in the latter. The indicated right-hand sides are used as the lower limit of integration. The success of the integrations may depend upon their values and order. `potentialzeroloc` is initially set to 0.

Function: residue (expr, z, z_0)

Computes the residue in the complex plane of the expression expr when the variable z assumes the value z_0. The residue is the coefficient of `(z - z_0)^(-1)` in the Laurent series for expr.

```(%i1) residue (s/(s**2+a**2), s, a*%i);
1
(%o1)                           -
2
(%i2) residue (sin(a*x)/x**4, x, 0);
3
a
(%o2)                         - --
6
```

Function: risch (expr, x)

Integrates expr with respect to x using the transcendental case of the Risch algorithm. (The algebraic case of the Risch algorithm has not been implemented.) This currently handles the cases of nested exponentials and logarithms which the main part of `integrate` can't do. `integrate` will automatically apply `risch` if given these cases.

`erfflag`, if `false`, prevents `risch` from introducing the `erf` function in the answer if there were none in the integrand to begin with.

```(%i1) risch (x^2*erf(x), x);
2
3                      2                - x
%pi x  erf(x) + (sqrt(%pi) x  + sqrt(%pi)) %e
(%o1)   -------------------------------------------------
3 %pi
(%i2) diff(%, x), ratsimp;
2
(%o2)                       x  erf(x)
```

Function: tldefint (expr, x, a, b)

Equivalent to `ldefint` with `tlimswitch` set to `true`.

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QUADPACK is a collection of functions for the numerical computation of one-dimensional definite integrals. It originated from a joint project of R. Piessens (1), E. de Doncker (2), C. Ueberhuber (3), and D. Kahaner (4).

The QUADPACK library included in Maxima is an automatic translation (via the program `f2cl`) of the Fortran source code of QUADPACK as it appears in the SLATEC Common Mathematical Library, Version 4.1 (5). The SLATEC library is dated July 1993, but the QUADPACK functions were written some years before. There is another version of QUADPACK at Netlib (6); it is not clear how that version differs from the SLATEC version.

The QUADPACK functions included in Maxima are all automatic, in the sense that these functions attempt to compute a result to a specified accuracy, requiring an unspecified number of function evaluations. Maxima's Lisp translation of QUADPACK also includes some non-automatic functions, but they are not exposed at the Maxima level.

Further information about QUADPACK can be found in the QUADPACK book Pullover Boutique Pullover Old Navy Boutique Sweater Sweater Navy Boutique Old U5nBB1.

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### 19.3.1 Overview

`quad_qag`

Integration of a general function over a finite interval. `quad_qag` implements a simple globally adaptive integrator using the strategy of Aind (Piessens, 1973). The caller may choose among 6 pairs of Gauss-Kronrod quadrature formulae for the rule evaluation component. The high-degree rules are suitable for strongly oscillating integrands.

`quad_qags`

Integration of a general function over a finite interval. `quad_qags` implements globally adaptive interval subdivision with extrapolation (de Doncker, 1978) by the Epsilon algorithm (Wynn, 1956).

`quad_qagi`

Integration of a general function over an infinite or semi-infinite interval. The interval is mapped onto a finite interval and then the same strategy as in `quad_qags` is applied.

`quad_qawo`

Integration of cos(omega x) f(x) or sin(omega x) f(x) over a finite interval, where omega is a constant. The rule evaluation component is based on the modified Clenshaw-Curtis technique. `quad_qawo` applies adaptive subdivision with extrapolation, similar to `quad_qags`.

`quad_qawf`

Calculates a Fourier cosine or Fourier sine transform on a semi-infinite interval. The same approach as in `quad_qawo` is applied on successive finite intervals, and convergence acceleration by means of the Epsilon algorithm (Wynn, 1956) is applied to the series of the integral contributions.

`quad_qaws`

Integration of w(x) f(x) over a finite interval [a, b], where w is a function of the form (x - a)^alpha (b - x)^beta v(x) and v(x) is 1 or log(x - a) or log(b - x) or log(x - a) log(b - x), and alpha > -1 and beta > -1.

A globally adaptive subdivision strategy is applied, with modified Clenshaw-Curtis integration on the subintervals which contain a or b.

`quad_qawc`

Computes the Cauchy principal value of f(x)/(x - c) over a finite interval (a, b) and specified c. The strategy is globally adaptive, and modified Clenshaw-Curtis integration is used on the subranges which contain the point x = c.

`quad_qagp`

Basically the same as `quad_qags` but points of singularity or discontinuity of the integrand must be supplied. This makes it easier for the integrator to produce a good solution.

Eagle Promotion Outfitters Promotion American American tq6vwt8d
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## 19.4 Functions and Variables for QUADPACK

Skirt Casual Casual Boutique Skirt Boutique Casual Casual Skirt Boutique Boutique Skirt Boutique Function: quad_qag
quad_qag (f(x), x, a, b, Skirt Casual Casual Boutique Boutique Skirt Boutique Boutique Boutique Casual Casual Skirt Skirt key, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])
quad_qag (f, x, a, b, key, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])

Integration of a general function over a finite interval. `quad_qag` implements a simple globally adaptive integrator using the strategy of Aind (Piessens, 1973). The caller may choose among 6 pairs of Gauss-Kronrod quadrature formulae for the rule evaluation component. The high-degree rules are suitable for strongly oscillating integrands.

`quad_qag` computes the integral

integrate (f(x), x, a, b)

The function to be integrated is f(x), with dependent variable x, and the function is to be integrated between the limits a and b. key is the integrator to be used and should be an integer between 1 and 6, inclusive. The value of key selects the order of the Gauss-Kronrod integration rule. High-order rules are suitable for strongly oscillating integrands.

The integrand may be specified as the name of a Maxima or Lisp function or operator, a Maxima lambda expression, or a general Maxima expression.

The numerical integration is done adaptively by subdividing the integration region into sub-intervals until the desired accuracy is achieved.

The keyword arguments are optional and may be specified in any order. They all take the form `key=val`. The keyword arguments are:

`epsrel`

Desired relative error of approximation. Default is 1d-8.

`epsabs`

Desired absolute error of approximation. Default is 0.

`limit`

Size of internal work array. limit is the maximum number of subintervals to use. Default is 200.

`quad_qag` returns a list of four elements:

• an approximation to the integral,
• the estimated absolute error of the approximation,
• the number integrand evaluations,
• an error code.

The error code (fourth element of the return value) can have the values:

`0`

if no problems were encountered;

`1`

if too many sub-intervals were done;

`2`

if excessive roundoff error is detected;

`3`

if extremely bad integrand behavior occurs;

`6`

if the input is invalid.

Examples:

```(%i1) quad_qag (x^(1/2)*log(1/x), x, 0, 1, 3, 'epsrel=5d-8);
(%o1)    [.4444444444492108, 3.1700968502883E-9, 961, 0]
(%i2) integrate (x^(1/2)*log(1/x), x, 0, 1);
4
(%o2)                           -
9
```

quad_qags (f(x), x, a, b, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])
quad_qags (f, x, a, b, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])

Integration of a general function over a finite interval. `quad_qags` implements globally adaptive interval subdivision with extrapolation (de Doncker, 1978) by the Epsilon algorithm (Wynn, 1956).

`quad_qags` computes the integral

integrate (f(x), x, a, b)

The function to be integrated is f(x), with dependent variable x, and the function is to be integrated between the limits a and b.

The integrand may be specified as the name of a Maxima or Lisp function or operator, a Maxima lambda expression, or a general Maxima expression.

The keyword arguments are optional and may be specified in any order. They all take the form `key=val`. The keyword arguments are:

`epsrel`

Desired relative error of approximation. Default is 1d-8.

`epsabs`

Desired absolute error of approximation. Default is 0.

`limit`

Size of internal work array. limit is the maximum number of subintervals to use. Default is 200.

`quad_qags` returns a list of four elements:

• an approximation to the integral,
• the estimated absolute error of the approximation,
• the number integrand evaluations,
• an error code.

The error code (fourth element of the return value) can have the values:

`0`

no problems were encountered;

`1`

too many sub-intervals were done;

`2`

excessive roundoff error is detected;

`3`

`4`

failed to converge

`5`

integral is probably divergent or slowly convergent

`6`

if the input is invalid.

Examples:

```(%i1) quad_qags (x^(1/2)*log(1/x), x, 0, 1, 'epsrel=1d-10);
(%o1)   [.4444444444444448, 1.11022302462516E-15, 315, 0]
```

Note that `quad_qags` is more accurate and efficient than `quad_qag` for this integrand.

quad_qagi (f(x), x, a, b, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])
quad_qagi (f, x, a, b, [epsrel, epsabs, Casual Boutique Casual Skirt Boutique Casual Skirt Boutique Boutique Skirt Skirt Boutique Casual limit])

Integration of a general function over an infinite or semi-infinite interval. The interval is mapped onto a finite interval and then the same strategy as in `quad_qags` is applied.

`quad_qagi` evaluates one of the following integrals

integrate (f(x), x, a, inf)

integrate (f(x), x, minf, a)

integrate (f(x), x, minf, inf)

using the Quadpack QAGI routine. The function to be integrated is f(x), with dependent variable x, and the function is to be integrated over an infinite range.

The integrand may be specified as the name of a Maxima or Lisp function or operator, a Maxima lambda expression, or a general Maxima expression.

One of the limits of integration must be infinity. If not, then `quad_qagi` will just return the noun form.

The keyword arguments are optional and may be specified in any order. They all take the form `key=val`. The keyword arguments are:

`epsrel`

Desired relative error of approximation. Default is 1d-8.

`epsabs`

Desired absolute error of approximation. Default is 0.

`limit`

Size of internal work array. limit is the maximum number of subintervals to use. Default is 200.

`quad_qagi` returns a list of four elements:

• an approximation to the integral,
• the estimated absolute error of the approximation,
• the number integrand evaluations,
• an error code.

The error code (fourth element of the return value) can have the values:

`0`

no problems were encountered;

`1`

too many sub-intervals were done;

`2`

excessive roundoff error is detected;

`3`

`4`

failed to converge

`5`

integral is probably divergent or slowly convergent

`6`

if the input is invalid.

Examples:

```(%i1) quad_qagi (x^2*exp(-4*x), x, 0, inf, 'epsrel=1d-8);
(%o1)        [0.03125, 2.95916102995002E-11, 105, 0]
(%i2) integrate (x^2*exp(-4*x), x, 0, inf);
1
(%o2)                          --
32
```

quad_qawc (f(x), x, c, a, b, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])
quad_qawc (f, x, c, a, b, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])

Computes the Cauchy principal value of f(x)/(x - c) over a finite interval. The strategy is globally adaptive, and modified Clenshaw-Curtis integration is used on the subranges which contain the point x = c.

`quad_qawc` computes the Cauchy principal value of

integrate (f(x)/(x - c), x, a, b)

using the Quadpack QAWC routine. The function to be integrated is `f(x)/(x - c)`, with dependent variable x, and the function is to be integrated over the interval a to b.

The integrand may be specified as the name of a Maxima or Lisp function or operator, a Maxima lambda expression, or a general Maxima expression.

The keyword arguments are optional and may be specified in any order. They all take the form `key=val`. The keyword arguments are:

`epsrel`

Desired relative error of approximation. Default is 1d-8.

`epsabs`

Desired absolute error of approximation. Default is 0.

`limit`

Size of internal work array. limit is the maximum number of subintervals to use. Default is 200.

`quad_qawc` returns a list of four elements:

• an approximation to the integral,
• the estimated absolute error of the approximation,
• the number integrand evaluations,
• an error code.

The error code (fourth element of the return value) can have the values:

`0`

no problems were encountered;

`1`

too many sub-intervals were done;

`2`

excessive roundoff error is detected;

`3`

`6`

if the input is invalid.

Examples:

```(%i1) quad_qawc (2^(-5)*((x-1)^2+4^(-5))^(-1), x, 2, 0, 5,
'epsrel=1d-7);
(%o1)    [- 3.130120337415925, 1.306830140249558E-8, 495, 0]
(%i2) integrate (2^(-alpha)*(((x-1)^2 + 4^(-alpha))*(x-2))^(-1),
x, 0, 5);
Principal Value
alpha
alpha       9 4                 9
4      log(------------- + -------------)
alpha           alpha
64 4      + 4   64 4      + 4
(%o2) (-----------------------------------------
alpha
2 4      + 2

3 alpha                       3 alpha
-------                       -------
2            alpha/2          2          alpha/2
2 4        atan(4 4       )   2 4        atan(4       )   alpha
- --------------------------- - -------------------------)/2
alpha                        alpha
2 4      + 2                 2 4      + 2
(%i3) ev (%, alpha=5, numer);
(%o3)                    - 3.130120337415917
```

Function:Sleeve Printed Line Dress Peasant V Neck Mini A Short Floral vvq7tw quad_qawf
quad_qawf (Skirt Boutique Skirt Skirt Casual Boutique Boutique Casual Casual Boutique Boutique Casual Skirt f(x), x, a, omega, trig, [epsabs, limit, maxp1, limlst])
quad_qawf (f, x, a, omega, trig, [epsabs, limit, maxp1, limlst])

Calculates a Fourier cosine or Fourier sine transform on a semi-infinite interval using the Quadpack QAWF function. The same approach as in `quad_qawo` is applied on successive finite intervals, and convergence acceleration by means of the Epsilon algorithm (Wynn, 1956) is applied to the series of the integral contributions.

`quad_qawf` computes the integral

integrate (f(x)*w(x), x, a, inf)

The weight function w is selected by trig:

`cos`

w(x) = cos (omega x)

`sin`

w(x) = sin (omega x)

Skirt Skirt Casual Boutique Skirt Boutique Skirt Casual Boutique Casual Boutique Casual Boutique The integrand may be specified as the name of a Maxima or Lisp function or operator, a Maxima lambda expression, or a general Maxima expression.

The keyword arguments are optional and may be specified in any order. They all take the form `key=val`. The keyword arguments are:

`epsabs`

Desired absolute error of approximation. Default is 1d-10.

`limit`

Size of internal work array. (limit - limlst)/2 is the maximum number of subintervals to use. Default is 200.

`maxp1`

Maximum number of Chebyshev moments. Must be greater than 0. Default is 100.

`limlst`

Upper bound on the number of cycles. Must be greater than or equal to 3. Default is 10.

`quad_qawf` returns a list of four elements:

• an approximation to the integral,
• the estimated absolute error of the approximation,
• the number integrand evaluations,
• an error code.

The error code (fourth element of the return value) can have the values:

`0`

no problems were encountered;

`1`

too many sub-intervals were done;

`2`

excessive roundoff error is detected;

`3`

`6`

if the input is invalid.

Examples:

```(%i1) quad_qawf (exp(-x^2), x, 0, 1, 'cos, 'epsabs=1d-9);
(%o1)   [.6901942235215714, 2.84846300257552E-11, 215, 0]
(%i2) integrate (exp(-x^2)*cos(x), x, 0, inf);
- 1/4
%e      sqrt(%pi)
(%o2)                   -----------------
2
(%i3) ev (%, numer);
(%o3)                   .6901942235215714
```

quad_qawo (f(x), x, a, b, omega, trig, [epsrel, epsabs, limit, maxp1, limlst])
quad_qawo (f, x, a, b, omega, trig, [epsrel, epsabs, limit, maxp1, limlst])

Integration of cos (omega x) f(x) or sin (omega x) f(x) over a finite interval, where omega is a constant. The rule evaluation component is based on the modified Clenshaw-Curtis technique. `quad_qawo` applies adaptive subdivision with extrapolation, similar to `quad_qags`.

`quad_qawo` computes the integral using the Quadpack QAWO routine:

integrate (f(x)*w(x), x, a, b)

The weight function w is selected by trig:

`cos`

w(x) = cos (omega x)

`sin`

w(x) = sin (omega x)

The integrand may be specified as the name of a Maxima or Lisp function or operator, a Maxima lambda expression, or a general Maxima expression.

The keyword arguments are optional and may be specified in any order. They all take the form `key=val`. The keyword arguments are:

`epsrel`

Desired relative error of approximation. Default is 1d-8.

`epsabs`

Desired absolute error of approximation. Default is 0.

`limit`

Size of internal work array. limit/2 is the maximum number of subintervals to use. Default is 200.

`maxp1`

Maximum number of Chebyshev moments. Must be greater than 0. Default is 100.

`limlst`

Upper bound on the number of cycles. Must be greater than or equal to 3. Default is 10.

`quad_qawo` returns a list of four elements:

• an approximation to the integral,
• the estimated absolute error of the approximation,
• the number integrand evaluations,
• an error code.

The error code (fourth element of the return value) can have the values:

`0`

no problems were encountered;

`1`

too many sub-intervals were done;

`2`

excessive roundoff error is detected;

`3`

`6`

if the input is invalid.

Examples:

```(%i1) quad_qawo (x^(-1/2)*exp(-2^(-2)*x), x, 1d-8, 20*2^2, 1, cos);
(%o1)     [1.376043389877692, 4.72710759424899E-11, 765, 0]
(%i2) rectform (integrate (x^(-1/2)*exp(-2^(-alpha)*x) * cos(x),
x, 0, inf));
alpha/2 - 1/2            2 alpha
sqrt(%pi) 2              sqrt(sqrt(2        + 1) + 1)
(%o2)   -----------------------------------------------------
2 alpha
sqrt(2        + 1)
(%i3) ev (%, alpha=2, numer);
(%o3)                     1.376043390090716
```

quad_qaws (f(x), x, a, b, alpha, beta, wfun, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])
quad_qaws (f, Boutique Boutique Boutique Boutique Casual Skirt Skirt Casual Casual Casual Boutique Skirt Skirt x, a, b, Skirt Boutique Skirt Boutique Skirt Boutique Skirt Boutique Casual Casual Casual Boutique Casual alpha, beta, wfun, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])

Integration of w(x) f(x) over a finite interval, where w(x) is a certain algebraic or logarithmic function. A globally adaptive subdivision strategy is applied, with modified Clenshaw-Curtis integration on the subintervals which contain the endpoints of the interval of integration.

`quad_qaws` computes the integral using the Quadpack QAWS routine:

integrate (f(x)*w(x), x, a, b)

The weight function w is selected by wfun:

`1`

w(x) = (x - a)^alpha (b - x)^beta

`2`

w(x) = (x - a)^alpha (b - x)^beta log(x - a)

`3`

w(x) = (x - a)^alpha (b - x)^beta log(b - x)

`4`

w(x) = (x - a)^alpha (b - x)^beta log(x - a) log(b - x)

The integrand may be specified as the name of a Maxima or Lisp function or operator, a Maxima lambda expression, or a general Maxima expression.

The keyword arguments are optional and may be specified in any order. They all take the form `key=val`. The keyword arguments are:

`epsrel`

Desired relative error of approximation. Default is 1d-8.

`epsabs`

Desired absolute error of approximation. Default is 0.

`limit`

Size of internal work array. limitis the maximum number of subintervals to use. Default is 200.

`quad_qaws` returns a list of four elements:

• an approximation to the integral,
• the estimated absolute error of the approximation,
• the number integrand evaluations,
• an error code.

The error code (fourth element of the return value) can have the values:

`0`

no problems were encountered;

`1`

too many sub-intervals were done;

`2`

excessive roundoff error is detected;

`3`

`6`

if the input is invalid.

Examples:

```(%i1) quad_qaws (1/(x+1+2^(-4)), x, -1, 1, -0.5, -0.5, 1,
'epsabs=1d-9);
(%o1)     [8.750097361672832, 1.24321522715422E-10, 170, 0]
(%i2) integrate ((1-x*x)^(-1/2)/(x+1+2^(-alpha)), x, -1, 1);
alpha
Is  4 2      - 1  positive, negative, or zero?

pos;
alpha         alpha
2 %pi 2      sqrt(2 2      + 1)
(%o2)              -------------------------------
alpha
4 2      + 2
(%i3) ev (%, alpha=4, numer);
(%o3)                     8.750097361672829
```

quad_qagp (f(x), x, a, b, points, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])
quad_qagp (f, x, a, b, points, [epsrel, epsabs, limit])

Integration of a general function over a finite interval. `quad_qagp` implements globally adaptive interval subdivision with extrapolation (de Doncker, 1978) by the Epsilon algorithm (Wynn, 1956).

`quad_qagp` computes the integral

integrate (f(x), x, a, b)

The function to be integrated is f(x), with dependent variable x, and the function is to be integrated between the limits a and b.

Short Mini Unique Sleeve Neck Camera Dress shirt T Loose Round Pattern qwwx4gI

The integrand may be specified as the name of a Maxima or Lisp function or operator, a Maxima lambda expression, or a general Maxima expression.

Skirt Casual Skirt Boutique Boutique Skirt Casual Casual Skirt Boutique Boutique Boutique Casual To help the integrator, the user must supply a list of points where the integrand is singular or discontinous.

The keyword arguments are optional and may be specified in any order. They all take the form `key=val`. The keyword arguments are:

`epsrel`

Desired relative error of approximation. Default is 1d-8.

`epsabs`

Skirt Skirt Boutique Casual Skirt Boutique Boutique Casual Casual Boutique Boutique Casual Skirt Desired absolute error of approximation. Default is 0.

`limit`

Size of internal work array. limit is the maximum number of subintervals to use. Default is 200.

`quad_qagp` returns a list of four elements:

• an approximation to the integral,
• the estimated absolute error of the approximation,
• the number integrand evaluations,
• an error code.

The error code (fourth element of the return value) can have the values:

`0`

no problems were encountered;

`1`

too many sub-intervals were done;

`2`

excessive roundoff error is detected;

`3`

`4`

failed to converge

`5`

integral is probably divergent or slowly convergent

`6`

if the input is invalid.

Examples:

```(%i1) quad_qagp(x^3*log(abs((x^2-1)*(x^2-2))),x,0,3,[1,sqrt(2)]);
(%o1)   [52.74074838347143, 2.6247632689546663e-7, 1029, 0]
(%o2)   [52.74074847951494, 4.088443219529836e-7, 1869, 0]
```

The integrand has singularities at `1` and `sqrt(2)` so we supply these points to `quad_qagp`. We also note that `quad_qagp` is more accurate and more efficient that `quad_qags`.

Control error handling for quadpack. The parameter should be one of the following symbols:

`current_error`

The current error number

`control`

Controls if messages are printed or not. If it is set to zero or less, messages are suppressed.

`max_message`

The maximum number of times any message is to be printed.

If value is not given, then the current value of the parameter is returned. If value is given, the value of parameter is set to the given value.

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